Before The Final Revelation
The nation of Israel originated in Babylon, where Abraham revealed nature's Upper Force and then started to disseminate this knowledge about the Creator, the goal of creation, and the purpose of man and society. It was all done to enable us to ascend above our world, rather than be like all the animals that merely live and die, over and over again.
Abraham discovered how to ascend above this world and the life cycles of the mortal animate body. He attained the Upper, spiritual dimension, which is above this entire animate life. Abraham then began to disseminate this knowledge to all the inhabitants of Babylon, gathering thousands of people around himself. The group that he gathered came to be called "the house of Abraham."
This group went through a lengthy path and grew until it came to be called "the nation of Israel." This is not a regular nation like the other nations of the world that unite in a natural manner. "The nation of Israel" can be joined by every person who aspires to unity in order to reveal the Creator-the force of bestowal and love.
Therefore, this group (or nation) can be in one of two states: exile, which is when they want to unite, but they haven't yet attained it; and redemption, which is when they attain unity. They then attain the state of being as one man with one heart through a mutual guarantee (Arvut). Thus, they reveal the Creator within themselves (in Hebrew the Creator is called Boreh, which comes from the words Bo-come and Reh-reveal). They proceed to ascend up the ladder, reaching greater and greater unity and attaining greater bestowal until reaching the Final Correction of the ego, transforming it to love for the neighbor. This is the state of adhesion, Dvekut.
Eventually, all of humanity will have to join this group and join the Creator together with them. Today we have already gone through four exiles and three redemptions. We are now standing before the final redemption, meaning the final, full revelation of the Creator to every single person in the world.